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Lección 9

Personal Pronouns. Conjugation I. Ir, Estar

Por el camino compra un periódico

El señor López está en casa en la cama y escucha la radio. Entra la señora de López con el desayuno. El señor López toma el desayuno y cuando termina, va a la fábrica. Por el camino compra un periódico. El señor López es ingeniero. La fábrica donde trabaja es muy grande, es una fábrica gigantesca. Cuando llega a la fábrica, el ingeniero habla con el director, después visita los talleres y habla con los obreros y con las obreras. Cuando el ingeniero López termina el trabajo, regresa a casa. text translation



el señor   sir, Mr.
la señora   madam, Mrs., etc.
  de   of
la casa   house, home
la cama   bed
  escuchar   to listen, to hear
  entrar   to enter
  con   with
el desayuno   breakfast
  tomar   to take; to have
  cuando   when
  terminar   to end, to finish
  ir (va)   to go (goes)
  a   to, at
la fábrica   factory
  por   on, along; by, through, for
el camino   road, way
  comprar   to buy, to purchase
el periódico   newspaper
el ingeniero [iŋxeˈnjero] engineer
  trabajar [traβaˈxar] to work
  muy   very
  grande   big, large
  gigantesco [xiganˈtesko] gigantic, giant
  llegar [ʝeˈgar] to come, to arrive
  hablar [aˈβlar] to speak, to talk
el director [direkˈtor] director
  después   then; after
  visitar [bisiˈtar] to visit
el taller   workshop, studio
el obrero   worker (m.)
la obrera   worker (f.)
  regresar   to return , to come/arrive back
  Lección novena [lekˈθjon noˈβena] the ninth lesson.



Pay attention to the words with transcription in the vocabulary above. These were the last hints about pronunciation. If you still can’t read words without trancription, return to the first lesson and repeat it.

The meaning of words and expressions

El señor López está en casa. - Mr. Lopez is at home.

Note the preposition en here and the article at the beginning..

Va a la fábrica. - He goes to the factory.

The verb va goes is 3rd person singular of the verb ir to go. The verb ir always requires the preposition a, which show the direction, like the English preposition to.

López es ingeniero. - Lopez is an engineer.

Note that there is no indefinite article in the Spanish version of the sentence here and remember not to put it in similar sentences with occupations.

Learn the expressions:


en casa

at home


escuchar la radio

to listen to the radio


tomar el desayuno

to have/eat breakfast


ir a la fábrica

to go to the factory


por el camino

on the way


a casa


Grammar points

1. The use of acento

¿Cuándo llega López a la fábrica?

When does Lopes come to the factory?

Cuando López llega a la fábrica, habla con el director.

When Lopez comes to the factory, he talks with the director.

Remember that acento, the accent mark in Spanish, is placed not only to show stress of the words that are pronounced not according to the general rule, but also to show their different meaning, for example:



he (pronoun)



masculine definite article








when? (interrogative pronoun)



when (connective word)



what? how? (interrogative word)



like, as (conjunction, in comparison)



where? (interrogative word)



where (conjunction)

More usage of acento will be shown in the further lessons.

2. Personal pronouns

singular plural
yo I nosotros we (m.)
you nosotras we (f.)
él he vosotros you (m.)
ella she vosotras you (f.)
usted you
ellos they (m.)
ellas they (f.)
ustedes you (p.f.)

The English speakers should be careful here, because you don’t have polite forms in English, but Spanish and other languages do. You can’t just say ‘tú’ to a stranger or your boss or older people.

Another distinctive feature is that personal pronouns are often omitted in Spanish, if the person is easily understood:

tomo el desayuno I’m having brekfast (but literally: Having/have breakfast)

The form tomo (1st person singular) shows what person we are talking about.

However, if the sentence may cause ambiguity, the pronouns should be used, for example:

Yo voy a la fábrica y tú tomas el desayuno.
I’m going to the factory, and you’re having breakfast.

The personal pronouns we, you (pl.), they in Spanish have two genders: masculine — nosotros, vosotros, ellos and feminine — nosotras, vosotras, ellas. And if the group of people is mixed? Good question, boyo. If there is at least one male, you need to use nosotros, vosotros, ellos.

The plural forms vosotros, vosotras you are used only to address more than one person, who you already know, or a group of people in a meeting, or, for example, if an author would address the readers. Vosotros is a gender-neutral pronoun. Vosotros is rarely used in Latin America. The counterpart to vosotros in Latin America is ustedes. Ustedes is used in Latin America in both formal and informal situations. Nowadays, using vosotros in Spain expresses a certain familiarity to the person or people you’re conversing with, and it’s used in casual conversation. It’s similar to saying ‘you guys’ or ‘you all’ in English.

The forms usted singular (Vd. or Ud. for short) [usˈteð] and ustedes plural (Vds. or Uds. for short) [usˈteðes] are polite forms in Spanish. If you are not sure that you may say to people, than use them. UstedVd. originates from the combination of two words: V(uestra) (merce)dyour worship/grace.

3. Conjugation I. Present tense of the indicative mood (presente del modo indicativo)

There are three classes or conjugations of verbs in Spanish.

The first class, we’ll call it ‘conjugation I’, include the verbs that end in ‘-ar’ in their infinitive form, for example:



to speak, to talk



to buy, to purchase



to work



to take, to have



to enter



to listen, to hear



to return

The present tense of the indicative mood of the first class is formed from the stem of an infinitive verb with the help of the following endings:

-o, -as, -a; -amos, -áis, -an

In order to form the present tense of a verb, we drop the ending -ar from the infinitive verb and add the appropriate ending of the present tense, for example:




I talk




I buy




you take

Note: all the translations above and below can be in the continuous forms as well, depending on the context. The simple form is used by default because it’s... simple :) and more close to the original meaning.

Present tense
(indicative mood)

tomar to take
Affirmative form

yo tomo   I take
tú tomas you take
él toma he takes
ella she
usted toma you take
nosotros tomamos   we take (m.)
nosotras tomamos we take (f.)
vosotros tomáis you take (m.)
vosotras tomáis you take (f.)
ellos toman they take (m.)
ellas toman they take (f.)
ustedes toman you take


  1. The singular and plural form of 3rd person agrees with the polite form of the verb, for example:
    él toma   ellos toman
    ella ellas
    usted ustedes
  2. The masculine plural form of 1st and 2nd person agrees with the feminine form of the same person and number, for example:


    nosotros tomamos

    vosotros tomáis


    nosotras tomamos

    vosotras tomáis

Interrogative form


¿tomo yo?

Do I take?


¿tomas tú?

Do you take?


¿toma él?

Does he take?




Negative form

yo no tomo   I don’t take
tú no tomas you don’t take
él no toma he doesn’t take
ella she doesn’t take
Vd. you don’t take
nosotros no tomamos we don’t take
vosotros no tomáis you don’t take
ellos no toman they don’t take (m.)
ellas they don’t take (f.)
Vds. you don’t take

4. The conjugation of the verbs ir and estar in the present tense

Just like in English, there are irregular verbs in Spanish. The verbs ir to go and estar to be are two of them.

In the present tense, these verbs are conjugated in the following way (pronounce v as [β] in the word ir below):


ir to go

singular plural
yo voy I go nosotros vamos you go
tú vas you go vosotros vais you go
él va he goes ellos van they go (m.)
ella she goes ellas they go (f.)
Vd. you go Vds. you go

estar to be

yo estoy   I am
tú estás you are
él está * he is
ella she
Vd. you are
nosotros estamos   we are
vosotros estáis you are
ellos están * they are (m.)
ellas they are (f.)
Vds. you are


I. Answer the following questions:

¿Dónde está el señor López? ¿Qué escucha el señor López? ¿Qué compra López por el camino? ¿Cómo es la fábrica donde trabaja López? ¿Cuándo regresa a casa el ingeniero López?


II. Fill in the blanks with appropriate verb endings:

Yo trabaj tú trabaj él trabaj nosotros trabaj vosotros trabaj ellas trabaj usted trabaj ellos regres vosotros regres nosotros regres él regres tú regres yo regres usted regres nosotros habl vosotros trabaj ella escuch él lleg ustedes lleg tú termin ellos visit nosotros estudi usted escuch ustedes visit yo trabaj tú habl él escuch la radio. Usted entr en la habitación. Nosotros (ir) a la fábrica. Nosotros escuch la radio. Usted termin el trabajo. Ellas habl con la señora de López. El ingeniero López regres a casa. Usted habl con el ingeniero López. Vosotros compr el periódico. Yo tom el desayuno y escuch la radio. Ella est en la cama. Nosotros compr un periódico, después tom el desayuno y después (ir) a la fábrica donde trabaj.


III. Translate into English:

El señor López no trabaja, está en la cama. La señora de López no está en casa, está en la fábrica. La señora de López compra un periódico. Cuando llega a casa habla con el señor López y después escucha la radio. Nosotros trabajamos en la fábrica. Cuando terminamos el trabajo, regresamos a casa y por el camino compramos un libro. ¿Cuándo regresa Vd. a casa?


IV. Translate into Spanish:

I’m in bed and I’m having breakfast. She works. I go to the factory, she works at home. I come back home, she talks with Mrs. Lopez. We’re having breakfast when you go to the factory. When we work, they (f.) talk. When you come back home, we’re having breakfast. When he enters (in) the room, you (pl.) finish the breakfast and go to the factory. Engineer Lopez enters the room. There are three books on the table. He is an engineer. Mrs. Lopez doesn’t work. There are mugs on the table. Where do you work? (polite form) Does engineer Lopez work with you? (p. f.)